SHELL AND TUBE TYPE HEAT EXCHANGER PDF



Shell And Tube Type Heat Exchanger Pdf

5.1 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers Homepages at WMU. Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger is the most common type of heat exchanger in oil refineries and other large chemical processes, and is suited for higher-pressure applications. Shell Tubes Heat Exchanger are classified into fixed and Floating type Heat Exchangers ., 3. Setting shell side and tube side pressure drop design limits. 4. Setting shell side and tube side velocity limits. 5. Selection of heat transfer models and fouling coefficients for shell side and tube side. Mechanical: 1. Selection of heat exchanger TEMA layout and number of passes. 2. Specification of tube parameters - size, layout, pitch.

Twisted Type Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers IJEDR

Alfa Laval Shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The mechanical design of a shell and tube heat exchanger provides information on items such as shell thickness, flange thickness, etc. These are calculated using a pressure vessel design code such as the Boiler and Pressure Vessel code from ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) and the British Master Pressure Vessel Standard, BS 5500., A third type of heat exchanger is a plate and shell heat exchanger, which combines plate heat exchanger with shell and tube heat exchanger technologies. The heart of the heat exchanger contains a fully welded circular plate pack made by pressing and cutting round plates and welding them together..

A third type of heat exchanger is a plate and shell heat exchanger, which combines plate heat exchanger with shell and tube heat exchanger technologies. The heart of the heat exchanger contains a fully welded circular plate pack made by pressing and cutting round plates and welding them together. 14.10.2011 · Shell & Tube Type Heat Exchanger Sriram Balasubramanian. Loading 14 videos Play all 熱傳導 Shell and tube heat exchanger

Shell-and-tube heat exchanger. Related products; Our shell and tube heat exchangers are used in many comfort and industry applications for heating and cooling fluids. They consist of a shell with traditional plain tubes or enhanced surface tubes for high thermal performance. This paper is concerned with the study of shell & tube type heat exchanger. Also the main components of shell and tube type heat exchanger are shown in drawing and its detail discussion is given. Moreover the constructional details and design methods of shell and tube type heat exchangers has been given from which of that the Kern

The mechanical design of a shell and tube heat exchanger provides information on items such as shell thickness, flange thickness, etc. These are calculated using a pressure vessel design code such as the Boiler and Pressure Vessel code from ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) and the British Master Pressure Vessel Standard, BS 5500. sized tube and shell heat exchanger, is capable of transferring much more heat. This is due to the larger area the plates provide over tubes. Due to the high heat transfer efficiency of the plates, plate type heat exchangers are usually very small when compared to a tube and shell type heat exchanger with the same heat transfer capacity. Plate type

Exergy Analysis On Shell & Tube Type Heat Exchanger Chetan Undhad Prakash Patel PG Student Assistant Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering MGITER, Navsari MGITER, Navsari Dr. Nikul Patel Piyush Savliya Assistant Professor Assistant Professor 5.1 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers The most common type of heat exchanger in industrial applications is shell-and-tube heat exchangers. The exchangers exhibit more than 65% of the market share with a variety of design experiences of about 100 years. Shell-and tube heat exchangers provide typically

This paper is concerned with the study of shell & tube type heat exchanger. Also the main components of shell and tube type heat exchanger are shown in drawing and its detail discussion is given. Moreover the constructional details and design methods of shell and tube type heat exchangers has been given from which of that the Kern PDF On Jul 10, 2017, Essam E. Khalil and others published Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Performance an example for optimization of a plate-type heat exchanger is presented.

Shell and tube heat exchanger Wikipedia

Shell and tube type heat exchanger pdf

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Types Yes Yen GraphiTech. Basco ® Type 500 Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers. Our Basco Type 500 remains the industry standard in ultimate value and long-term reliability. This proven fixed tubesheet shell and tube heat exchanger offers the cost effectiveness that comes with having a highly standardized design, while easily providing various options to meet specific customer requirements., VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF AES TYPE SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER BY HTRI SOFTWARE Brijeshkumar M. Patel* Address for Correspondence *ME(CAD/CAM), and Assistant Professor in H.C.E.T, Sidhpur ABSTRACT In this paper a simplified approach to optimize the design of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger [STHE] by flow induced vibration analysis [FVA] is presented..

(PDF) Design and Fabrication of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Shell and tube type heat exchanger pdf

US3168136A Shell and tube-type heat exchanger - Google. SHELL. AND TUBE-TYPE HEAT EXCHANGER 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 Feb. 2, 1965 Filed March 17, 1955 United States Patent Ofifice 3,168,136 Patented Feb. 2, 1965 3,168 136 SHELL AND TUBE-TYPlE HEAT EXfllANGER Johannes H. Amman, Barberton, Ohio, assignor to The Babcock & Wilcox flompany, New York, N.Y., a corporation of New Jersey Filed Mar. 17, 1955. Ser. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falling_film_evaporator Shell and tube exchangers seldom have pressure-relief valves for fire exposure because vapors will quickly flow to the next pressure vessel from which they can be discharged. The “two-thirds rule” from API RP 521 states: For relatively low-pressure equipment, complete tube failure is not a viable contingency when the design pressure of the low-pressure side is equal to or greater than two.

Shell and tube type heat exchanger pdf

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  • In shell-and-tube heat exchangers the flow enters different tubes in parallel. When tubes start to foul, the local • Cross-section decrease Spiral Heat Exchanger Type 1 Spiral Heat Exchanger Type 2 The Type 1 is a good choice when one, or both, fluids are foul-ing, due to its self-cleaning effect. A third type of heat exchanger is a plate and shell heat exchanger, which combines plate heat exchanger with shell and tube heat exchanger technologies. The heart of the heat exchanger contains a fully welded circular plate pack made by pressing and cutting round plates and welding them together.

    shell-and-tube, gasketed plate, brazed plate and air-cooled heat exchanger products. Standard Xchange heat exchangers are engineered and manufactured by experienced craftsmen who have been devoted to the science of heat transfer not just for years, but for generations. And because we offer such a wide assortment of different heat exchanger Shell & tube heat exchangers are very popular and commonly found in industrial use. This is mainly due to their versatility. A shell and tube exchanger consists of a …

    This heat exchanger is one of the most common type used in industry. This is because it is compact, but can work at higher pressures than other designs. It is a large tube (shell) which surrounds several smaller tubes (a bundle). One fluid passes through the shell, and the other fluid passes through the tube bundle, therefore transferring heat. hermal design of shell-and-tube heat exchangers (STHEs) is done by sophisticated computer software. However, a good un-derstanding of the underlying principles of exchanger design is needed to use this software effectively. This article explains the basics of ex-changer thermal design, covering such topics as: STHE components; classifica-

    SHELL. AND TUBE-TYPE HEAT EXCHANGER 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 Feb. 2, 1965 Filed March 17, 1955 United States Patent Ofifice 3,168,136 Patented Feb. 2, 1965 3,168 136 SHELL AND TUBE-TYPlE HEAT EXfllANGER Johannes H. Amman, Barberton, Ohio, assignor to The Babcock & Wilcox flompany, New York, N.Y., a corporation of New Jersey Filed Mar. 17, 1955. Ser. 3. Setting shell side and tube side pressure drop design limits. 4. Setting shell side and tube side velocity limits. 5. Selection of heat transfer models and fouling coefficients for shell side and tube side. Mechanical: 1. Selection of heat exchanger TEMA layout and number of passes. 2. Specification of tube parameters - size, layout, pitch

    1. Danielson S.O, Investigation of twisted type shell and tube heat exchanger, Norwegian university of science & technology. 2. Morgan R.D, Twisted tube heat exchanger technology, Brown Fin Tube Company. 3. Ljubicic B, Twisted tube heat exchangers: Technology and Application, Brown Fin Tube Company. 4. A shell and tube heat exchanger is a class of heat exchanger designs. It is the most common type of heat exchanger in oil refineries and other large chemical processes, and is suited for higher-pressure applications. As its name implies, this type of heat exchanger consists of a shell (a large pressure vessel) with a bundle of tubes inside it.

    Plate and shell heat exchanger. A third type of heat exchanger is a plate and shell heat exchanger, which combines plate heat exchanger with shell and tube heat exchanger technologies. The heart of the heat exchanger contains a fully welded circular plate pack made by pressing and cutting round plates and welding them together. Heat exchange occurs between fluids flowing through the shell side and through the tubes. Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA) has classified Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Types that describes them based on the Front End Stationary Head type, Shell type and Rear End Head types.

    A third type of heat exchanger is a plate and shell heat exchanger, which combines plate heat exchanger with shell and tube heat exchanger technologies. The heart of the heat exchanger contains a fully welded circular plate pack made by pressing and cutting round plates and welding them together. 1. Danielson S.O, Investigation of twisted type shell and tube heat exchanger, Norwegian university of science & technology. 2. Morgan R.D, Twisted tube heat exchanger technology, Brown Fin Tube Company. 3. Ljubicic B, Twisted tube heat exchangers: Technology and Application, Brown Fin Tube Company. 4.

    (PDF) Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Performance

    Shell and tube type heat exchanger pdf

    INTRODUCTION TO HEAT EXCHANGERS LTH. This is the same type of heat exchanger as above, but with one tube pass. AEM: Channel with Removable Cover, One Pass Shell, Fixed Tubesheet Bonnet: This is almost the same type of heat exchanger as the first BEM, the removable cover allows the inside of the tubes to be inspected and cleaned without unbolting the piping. AES, Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are commonly used in oil refineries and other large chemical processes. In this model, two separated fluids at different temperatures flow through the heat exchanger, one through the tubes (tube side) and the other through the shell around the tubes (shell side)..

    (PDF) Design and Fabrication of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

    Basco Type 500 Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger API Heat Transfer. Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are commonly used in oil refineries and other large chemical processes. In this model, two separated fluids at different temperatures flow through the heat exchanger, one through the tubes (tube side) and the other through the shell around the tubes (shell side)., shell-and-tube, gasketed plate, brazed plate and air-cooled heat exchanger products. Standard Xchange heat exchangers are engineered and manufactured by experienced craftsmen who have been devoted to the science of heat transfer not just for years, but for generations. And because we offer such a wide assortment of different heat exchanger.

    A shell and tube heat exchanger is a class of heat exchanger designs. It is the most common type of heat exchanger in oil refineries and other large chemical processes, and is suited for higher-pressure applications. As its name implies, this type of heat exchanger consists of a shell (a large pressure vessel) with a bundle of tubes inside it. This paper is concerned with the study of shell & tube type heat exchanger. Also the main components of shell and tube type heat exchanger are shown in drawing and its detail discussion is given. Moreover the constructional details and design methods of shell and tube type heat exchangers has been given from which of that the Kern

    In a shell and tube type heat exchanger, one end will have a station- ary tube shet called the stationary head and at the other end, the tube plate may be stationary or floating (rear end). Typical designs of stationary and floating heads are given in Fig. 8. Kelvion Shell & Tube Single ComFin combines the advantages of a shell & tube heat exchanger with a compact fin design, resulting in a highly efficient and space-saving solution. You can choose a standardized or customized design to best suit your applicat...

    PDF On Jul 10, 2017, Essam E. Khalil and others published Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Performance an example for optimization of a plate-type heat exchanger is presented. VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF AES TYPE SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER BY HTRI SOFTWARE Brijeshkumar M. Patel* Address for Correspondence *ME(CAD/CAM), and Assistant Professor in H.C.E.T, Sidhpur ABSTRACT In this paper a simplified approach to optimize the design of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger [STHE] by flow induced vibration analysis [FVA] is presented.

    Specifying Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers Understand what heat exchanger design specialists need to know — and remember, you know your process best Asif Raza Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are one of the most important and commonly used process equipment items in the chemical process industries (CPI). If you are working on Classification according to design or type Tubular Plate-type Extended surface Regenerative PHE Spiral Plate coil Printed circuit Gasketed Welded Brazed Double-pipe Shell-and-tube Spiral tube Pipe coils Cross-flow to tubes Parallel flow to tubes Plate-fin Tube-fin Ordinary Separating wall Heat-pipe wall Rotary Fixed-matrix Rotating hoods

    Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger is the most common type of heat exchanger in oil refineries and other large chemical processes, and is suited for higher-pressure applications. Shell Tubes Heat Exchanger are classified into fixed and Floating type Heat Exchangers . Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are commonly used in oil refineries and other large chemical processes. In this model, two separated fluids at different temperatures flow through the heat exchanger, one through the tubes (tube side) and the other through the shell around the tubes (shell side).

    Exergy Analysis On Shell & Tube Type Heat Exchanger Chetan Undhad Prakash Patel PG Student Assistant Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering MGITER, Navsari MGITER, Navsari Dr. Nikul Patel Piyush Savliya Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Depending on the expediency, speed and pressure loss, the flow through the tube chamber is carried out by a single pass or multiple passes. With the exception of radiation losses, the input heat quantity is the same as the output heat quantity. However, an efficient heat exchange can only take place if there is a sufficient temperature difference.

    This heat exchanger is one of the most common type used in industry. This is because it is compact, but can work at higher pressures than other designs. It is a large tube (shell) which surrounds several smaller tubes (a bundle). One fluid passes through the shell, and the other fluid passes through the tube bundle, therefore transferring heat. T.R. BOTT, in Fouling of Heat Exchangers, 1995. 10.2.7 Corrosion fatigue cracking. A combination of corrosive environments and repeated working of the metal may result in metal failure. The fatigue is brought about by a routine cyclic application of stress: the vibration of tubes in a shell and tube heat exchanger for instance. The nature of the aggressive conditions and the metal involved are

    Plate and shell heat exchanger. A third type of heat exchanger is a plate and shell heat exchanger, which combines plate heat exchanger with shell and tube heat exchanger technologies. The heart of the heat exchanger contains a fully welded circular plate pack made by pressing and cutting round plates and welding them together. SHELL. AND TUBE-TYPE HEAT EXCHANGER 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 Feb. 2, 1965 Filed March 17, 1955 United States Patent Ofifice 3,168,136 Patented Feb. 2, 1965 3,168 136 SHELL AND TUBE-TYPlE HEAT EXfllANGER Johannes H. Amman, Barberton, Ohio, assignor to The Babcock & Wilcox flompany, New York, N.Y., a corporation of New Jersey Filed Mar. 17, 1955. Ser.

    Classification according to design or type Tubular Plate-type Extended surface Regenerative PHE Spiral Plate coil Printed circuit Gasketed Welded Brazed Double-pipe Shell-and-tube Spiral tube Pipe coils Cross-flow to tubes Parallel flow to tubes Plate-fin Tube-fin Ordinary Separating wall Heat-pipe wall Rotary Fixed-matrix Rotating hoods INSTALLATION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL FOR DMI SHELL AND TUBE TYPE HEAT EXCHANGERS Thank you for purchasing a DMI SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER. This equipment has been carefully engineered and manufactured to perform to your requirements and provide long service life.

    Kelvion Shell & Tube Single ComFin combines the advantages of a shell & tube heat exchanger with a compact fin design, resulting in a highly efficient and space-saving solution. You can choose a standardized or customized design to best suit your applicat... TEMA stands for “Tubular Exchangers Manufacturers Association” and is a set of standards that were developed by leading shell and tube manufacturers. These standards define the style of heat exchanger and the machining and assembly tolerances. One of the advantages of selecting a shell & tube manufacturer that builds to TEMA specifications is that the end-user is assured that they will

    Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers C. Emery Nelson

    Shell and tube type heat exchanger pdf

    Alfa Laval Shell-and-tube heat exchanger. Shell & tube heat exchangers are very popular and commonly found in industrial use. This is mainly due to their versatility. A shell and tube exchanger consists of a …, Shell-and-tube heat exchanger. Related products; Our shell and tube heat exchangers are used in many comfort and industry applications for heating and cooling fluids. They consist of a shell with traditional plain tubes or enhanced surface tubes for high thermal performance..

    (PDF) Design and Fabrication of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger. T.R. BOTT, in Fouling of Heat Exchangers, 1995. 10.2.7 Corrosion fatigue cracking. A combination of corrosive environments and repeated working of the metal may result in metal failure. The fatigue is brought about by a routine cyclic application of stress: the vibration of tubes in a shell and tube heat exchanger for instance. The nature of the aggressive conditions and the metal involved are, The mechanical design of a shell and tube heat exchanger provides information on items such as shell thickness, flange thickness, etc. These are calculated using a pressure vessel design code such as the Boiler and Pressure Vessel code from ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) and the British Master Pressure Vessel Standard, BS 5500..

    Heat exchanger Wikipedia

    Shell and tube type heat exchanger pdf

    Shell & Tube Type Heat Exchanger YouTube. Shell and tube exchangers seldom have pressure-relief valves for fire exposure because vapors will quickly flow to the next pressure vessel from which they can be discharged. The “two-thirds rule” from API RP 521 states: For relatively low-pressure equipment, complete tube failure is not a viable contingency when the design pressure of the low-pressure side is equal to or greater than two https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falling_film_evaporator shell and tube passes, type of heat exchanger (fixed tube sheet, removable tube bundle etc), tube pitch, number of baffles, its type and size, shell and tube side pressure drop etc. 1.2.1. Shell Shell is the container for the shell fluid and the tube bundle is placed inside the shell..

    Shell and tube type heat exchanger pdf


    used to designating exchangers. For example, a fixed-tube sheet exchanger having stationary and rear heads integral with tube sheets, single-pass shell, 432 mm (17 in) inside diameter with tubes 4.9 m (16 ft) long. SIZE 17–192 TYPE CEN. Here, the 17 is the shell inside diameter, the 192 is the tube length in inches, and the CEN refers to Classification according to design or type Tubular Plate-type Extended surface Regenerative PHE Spiral Plate coil Printed circuit Gasketed Welded Brazed Double-pipe Shell-and-tube Spiral tube Pipe coils Cross-flow to tubes Parallel flow to tubes Plate-fin Tube-fin Ordinary Separating wall Heat-pipe wall Rotary Fixed-matrix Rotating hoods

    14.10.2011 · Shell & Tube Type Heat Exchanger Sriram Balasubramanian. Loading 14 videos Play all 熱傳導 Shell and tube heat exchanger 5.1 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers The most common type of heat exchanger in industrial applications is shell-and-tube heat exchangers. The exchangers exhibit more than 65% of the market share with a variety of design experiences of about 100 years. Shell-and tube heat exchangers provide typically

    Exergy Analysis On Shell & Tube Type Heat Exchanger Chetan Undhad Prakash Patel PG Student Assistant Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering MGITER, Navsari MGITER, Navsari Dr. Nikul Patel Piyush Savliya Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Basco ® Type 500 Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers. Our Basco Type 500 remains the industry standard in ultimate value and long-term reliability. This proven fixed tubesheet shell and tube heat exchanger offers the cost effectiveness that comes with having a highly standardized design, while easily providing various options to meet specific customer requirements.

    Shell-and-tube heat exchanger. Related products; Our shell and tube heat exchangers are used in many comfort and industry applications for heating and cooling fluids. They consist of a shell with traditional plain tubes or enhanced surface tubes for high thermal performance. This paper is concerned with the study of shell & tube type heat exchanger. Also the main components of shell and tube type heat exchanger are shown in drawing and its detail discussion is given. Moreover the constructional details and design methods of shell and tube type heat exchangers has been given from which of that the Kern

    The optimum thermal design of a shell and tube heat exchanger involves the consideration of many interacting design parameters which can be summarised as follows: Process 1. Process fluid assignments to shell side or tube side. 2. Selection of stream temperature specifications. 3. Setting shell side and tube side pressure drop design limits. 4. TEMA stands for “Tubular Exchangers Manufacturers Association” and is a set of standards that were developed by leading shell and tube manufacturers. These standards define the style of heat exchanger and the machining and assembly tolerances. One of the advantages of selecting a shell & tube manufacturer that builds to TEMA specifications is that the end-user is assured that they will

    A third type of heat exchanger is a plate and shell heat exchanger, which combines plate heat exchanger with shell and tube heat exchanger technologies. The heart of the heat exchanger contains a fully welded circular plate pack made by pressing and cutting round plates and welding them together. Examples of this type of heat exchanger areshell and tube exchangers, double tube exchangers and plate heat exchangers. On the other hand, according to their type of construction, exchangers are classified as: In multi-tubular or shell and tube heat exchangers, it is usual to combine

    This is the same type of heat exchanger as above, but with one tube pass. AEM: Channel with Removable Cover, One Pass Shell, Fixed Tubesheet Bonnet: This is almost the same type of heat exchanger as the first BEM, the removable cover allows the inside of the tubes to be inspected and cleaned without unbolting the piping. AES In shell-and-tube heat exchangers the flow enters different tubes in parallel. When tubes start to foul, the local • Cross-section decrease Spiral Heat Exchanger Type 1 Spiral Heat Exchanger Type 2 The Type 1 is a good choice when one, or both, fluids are foul-ing, due to its self-cleaning effect.

    Kelvion Shell & Tube Single ComFin combines the advantages of a shell & tube heat exchanger with a compact fin design, resulting in a highly efficient and space-saving solution. You can choose a standardized or customized design to best suit your applicat... This heat exchanger is one of the most common type used in industry. This is because it is compact, but can work at higher pressures than other designs. It is a large tube (shell) which surrounds several smaller tubes (a bundle). One fluid passes through the shell, and the other fluid passes through the tube bundle, therefore transferring heat.

    PDF On Jul 10, 2017, Essam E. Khalil and others published Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Performance an example for optimization of a plate-type heat exchanger is presented. Basco ® Type 500 Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers. Our Basco Type 500 remains the industry standard in ultimate value and long-term reliability. This proven fixed tubesheet shell and tube heat exchanger offers the cost effectiveness that comes with having a highly standardized design, while easily providing various options to meet specific customer requirements.

    Kelvion Shell & Tube Single ComFin combines the advantages of a shell & tube heat exchanger with a compact fin design, resulting in a highly efficient and space-saving solution. You can choose a standardized or customized design to best suit your applicat... Depending on the expediency, speed and pressure loss, the flow through the tube chamber is carried out by a single pass or multiple passes. With the exception of radiation losses, the input heat quantity is the same as the output heat quantity. However, an efficient heat exchange can only take place if there is a sufficient temperature difference.

    PDF A Heat Exchanger is a equipment used for Design and Fabrication of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger. Dubey and Verma conducted a Performance Analysis o f Shell & T ube Type Heat SHELL. AND TUBE-TYPE HEAT EXCHANGER 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 Feb. 2, 1965 Filed March 17, 1955 United States Patent Ofifice 3,168,136 Patented Feb. 2, 1965 3,168 136 SHELL AND TUBE-TYPlE HEAT EXfllANGER Johannes H. Amman, Barberton, Ohio, assignor to The Babcock & Wilcox flompany, New York, N.Y., a corporation of New Jersey Filed Mar. 17, 1955. Ser.

    Shell & tube heat exchangers are very popular and commonly found in industrial use. This is mainly due to their versatility. A shell and tube exchanger consists of a … 1. Danielson S.O, Investigation of twisted type shell and tube heat exchanger, Norwegian university of science & technology. 2. Morgan R.D, Twisted tube heat exchanger technology, Brown Fin Tube Company. 3. Ljubicic B, Twisted tube heat exchangers: Technology and Application, Brown Fin Tube Company. 4.